Frequently Asked Questions


General Company Questions:

What do the different application symbols represent?

AAActivity Assay
AGLeukocyte Aggregation
ARRAYProtein Microarray
ASAssay Standard
CSnap Frozen, Acetone Fixed Immunohistological Sections
CACell Assay
CCCell Culture
CHIPChromatin Immunoprecipitation
CLIAChemiluminescent Immunoassay
CMConfocal Microscopy
CTCytotoxic assay
DBDot Blot
EASIAEnzyme Amplified Sensitivity Immunoassay
EIEnzymatic Inhibition
EIAEnzyme Immunoassay
ELISAEnzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay
ELISPOTEnzyme-linked Immunosorbent Spot
EMElectron Microscopy
FACSFluorescence-activated Cell Sorting
FCFlow Cytometry
FLISAFluorescence-linked Immunosorbent Assay
FMFluorescent Microscopy
FNFunctional Assay
GSGel Shift Assay
HIHemagglutination Inhibition
HMEDIPHydroxymethylated DNA Immunoprecipitation
IAIn Vitro Assay
IACImmunoaffinity Chromatography
IEMImmunoelectron Microscopy
IFMImmunofluorescence Microscopy
IHC-AFFImmunohistochemistry (acetone fixed, snap frozen)
IHC-FImmunohistochemistry (frozen)
IHC-FFPEImmunohistochemistry (formalin fixed paraffin embedded)
IHC-PImmunohistochemistry (paraffin)
IHC-PLPImmunohistochemistry (periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde fixed)
IHC-RImmunohistochemistry (resin)
IMRMImmuno Multiple Reaction Monitoring
IRMAImmunoradiometric Assay
ITCIsothermal Titration Calorimetry
LFLateral Flow Assay
MCMass Cytometry
MSMass Spectrometry
PFormalin Fixed, Paraffin Embedded Immunohistological Sections
PLProximity Ligation Assay
PRImmunoassay Antibody Pair
RIDRadial Immunodiffusion
SDS-PAGESodium Dodecyl Sulfate - PolyAcrylamide Gel Electrophoresis
SPRSurface Plasmon Resonance
WBWestern Blot
XRCX-ray Crystallography

Do you have sample sizes available?

Please inquire for availability at

Do you provide discounts for ordering?

We offer 5% off for a quantity of 5 antibodies; and 10% off for a quantity of 10 antibodies.

Additional discounts for bulk orders are available. Please inquire for pricing at

Can you guarantee that this antibody works? If it doesn't work with our studies can we get a refund?

Aviva offers a standard 100% money back guarantee on all of our products which enables customers to test the antibody for their specific applications and return the antibody if they are not satisfied with its performance. 

How does this antibody compare to other antibodies to the same target from other vendors? offers a quick comparison for antibodies offered from different suppliers



Antibody Targets & Specificity Questions:

Immunogen Source:  The immunogen source for each antibody is listed on the data sheet corresponding to each antibody.  Almost all of Aviva Systems Biology antibodies were generated using peptide immunogens unless otherwise stated.

Immunogen Information

50 Amino Acid Region Sequence


Region:   N-terminal, middle region, C-terminal

Peptide Immunogen: The standard peptide immunogen used for antibody generation is ~14 amino acid peptide derived from the target protein sequence.

Peptide Immunogen Sequence: The 14 amino acid peptide immunogen sequence is proprietary and is not released to the public. However, Aviva Systems Biology does provide the following information for each antibody:

1. 50 Amino Acid Region Sequence: 50 amino acid region that contains the 14 amino acid immunogen sequence.

2. Location of the 50 Amino Acid Region: The general location of the immunogen peptide (N-Terminal, Middle, C-Terminal) is provided.

How do I know this antibody is specific for Target X? Does it cross-react with Target X1, X2, XB, XC?

Check the specificity for target using the 50 amino acid immunogen region sequence in a protein BLAST homology search.

Have you done peptide blocking experiments to prove that the antibody is specific for this target?

Peptide blocking studies are not conducted on a routine basis.  However, we have the peptide available for sale on a custom basis so that you can test the antibody to ensure its specificity.  If the blocking does not work effectively, you can return it for 100% refund.

Aviva offers a number of Western Blot kits where the peptide blocking parameters have been tested and established.

Do you also have antibody X or other epitopes that are associated with this target?

Will this antibody recognize the same target in different species?

All of Aviva Systems Biology antibodies are generated with peptides designed using the database corresponding to the primary species listed on the ASB website. These are generally human or mouse. This species was then confirmed with the western blot validation data shown for each antibody in the appropriate species.

All of the species cross-reactivity listed for each antibody on the Aviva website were generated computationally and have not been tested  through western blot analysis.

What is the precise protein that was used to design the peptide antigen for each antibody?

The NP# and a link corresponding to the protein sequence used for designing the peptide immunogen for each target is listed on each data sheet for each antibody.



Antibody & Peptide information

What is the difference between P050 & T100 antibodies?

There is a distinct difference between the P050 & T100 antibodies:

  • T100: Represents total IgG, where the serum collected is purified by a Protein A column.  Generally, sold in 100ug amounts.
  • P050: Peptide Affinity Purified antibody, where the antibody is purified using the specific peptide immunogen. Peptide affinity purified antibodies generally have a much higher specific activity than total IgG, requires far less antibody/reaction and produces less background. Consequently, it is sold in smaller lots of 50ug.


Can you send me a Certificate of Analysis for Antibody X?

See data sheet

Reconstitution & Storage of Antibodies

Antibodies should be reconstituted to a concentration of 1mg/ml in dH20. For long term storage, the reconstituted antibody should be aliquoted into several tubes and stored frozen at -20C or -80C.

Reconstitution & Storage of Peptides

Peptides should be reconstituted to a concentration of 1mg/ml in sterile PBS.  For long term storage, the reconstituted peptide should be aliquoted into several tubes and stored frozen at -20C or -80C.



High-Throughput Antibody Production Program

Aviva Systems Biology (ASB) antibody production program combines proprietary bioinformatic capacity for unique target peptide design on a genomic-scale, patent-pending Target cell Surface Attaches (TSA) immunization and high through-put, native cell sample quality control processes for all rabbit polyclonal antibody production. Additionally, using an mRNA profiling platform using microarray, we identify a target gene expression pattern and overall tissue specificity for a better target hit rate by using "correct" tissue samples for quality control test. This information is subsequently used in our immunoblot quality control assay and IHC. Our approach to high-throughput antibody production allows us to launch high specificity antibodies over 100 targets per month. ASB is an experienced and reliable manufacturer for large-scale antibody production.

Unique Domain Mapping:

Each target protein is systematically screened against its genomic-wide protein sequence for identify its unique domains. Every available unique domain in the target is summarized, plotted for its antigenecity and finally scored for "the best" peptide chemical synthesis scheme. (Peptide score page). This internal developed algorithm yields a highly specific antibodies for novel target with multiple epitope-specific antibodies development.

Unique Immunization (TSA: Target cell Surface Attaches)

To improve peptide immunization in various animal hosts, highly efficient carrier protein conjugation and delivery of the antigen to suitable antigen presenting cells are critical steps. Our patent-pending TSA technology enables us to specifically present target peptides to immuno-active cells for generating a "Super" immune- response, even for the so-called "weak antigen domains". This unique technology has provided ASB with a consistent success rate in antibody production for its customers.

Multiple Quality Control Process:

Each target specific antibody is evaluated using either cell lines or tissue samples with standard assays such as ECL based Western Blotting, Immunohistochemistry (IHC), and immunoprecipitation (IP). These results and test conditions are presented in our technical data sheets to help customers better understand product performance and more quickly generate scientific data specific to their investigation. 



Conjugation Code

AFAzide Free
AF488Alexa Fluor 488
AF647Alexa Fluor 647
APAlkaline Phosphatase
BACBiotinamidocaproate N-Hydroxysuccinimide Ester
BGGBovine Gamma Globulin
BIMABiotin Maleimide
BSABovine Serum Albumin
BTGBacterial Transglutaminase
CGColloidal gold
CPCarrier Protein
CY3Cyanine 3
CY5Cyanine 5
CY5.5Cyanine 5.5
CY7Cyanine 7
DyLight 405DyLight 405
DyLight 488DyLight 488
DyLight 549DyLight 549
DyLight 649DyLight 649
DyLight 680DyLight 680
DyLight 750DyLight 750
DyLight 800DyLight 800
FITCFluorescein Isothiocyanate
FLMAFluorescein Maleimide
HRPHorseradish Peroxidase
HSAHuman Serum Albumin
KLHKeyhole Limpet Hemocyanin
LELow Endotoxin
PBPacific Blue
PERCPPeridinin Chlorophyll Protein Complex
SPRDSpectral Red
SureLight 488SureLight 488
TRSCTexas Red Sulfonyl Chloride
TXRDTexas Red