Cell Cycle

The cell cycle pathway is a unidirectional process that governs cell division. This process, which cannot be reversed once started, is critical for cell survival. The cell cycle typically involves four phases: S phase, in which DNA is replicated, M phase, in which chromosomes are separated and two distinct cells are formed, and G1 and G2 phases during which the cell is preparing for cell division. The majority of the cell cycle pathway is regulated by two classes of proteins: cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins. Cyclins and CDKs form complexes that enable CDKs to phosphorylate and activate specific cell cycle intermediates. In the initial stages of the cell-cycle signal, cyclin D will bind to CDK4 and this complex will phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene[1]. During a quiescent state, Rb is bound to DNA and blocks the transcription of specific genes. After phosphorylation, Rb becomes unbound and genes necessary for the cell cycle are now accessible.

The cell cycle pathway is a highly-regulated process that incorporates three major checkpoints. The first checkpoint is the G1 checkpoint, which determines whether or not a cell will enter into the cell division process. The second checkpoint, G2, will determine if the cell will enter into mitosis. Both the G1 and G2 checkpoints can be affected by the presence or absence of various growth factors, DNA damage, or replicative senescence. The final checkpoint, metaphase, ensures proper chromosome alignment prior to cell division. The cell cycle pathway is intrinsically linked to cell survival and cell death. For instance, failure of a cell to meet the requirements of the individual cell cycle checkpoints will result in the cell undergoing apoptosis.

In cancer, the cell cycle checkpoints are often dysfunctional. Checkpoint proteins, such as Rb or p53, are often mutated or inactivated and this can result in cell division despite incomplete DNA synthesis and segregation errors. Inappropriate continuation of the cell cycle can lead to genomic instability, which is a common feature of malignant cells.

1. Nigg. 1995. Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Bioessays. 17(6):471-80.

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  1. ANAPC2 cDNA (ANA11043)
    ANAPC2 cDNA (ANA11043)
    Catalog #: ANA11043
    Protein Name: Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 2
    Alias: APC2, RP11-350O14.5
    Size: 1ug
    Price:
    $189.00
  2. SYNTHETIC Rat TGF BETA 3 Protein (OPSA10449)
    SYNTHETIC Rat TGF BETA 3 Protein (OPSA10449)
    Catalog #: OPSA10449
    Protein Name: Transforming growth factor beta-3
    Alias: MGC105479, Tgfb3
    Format: Purified synthetic peptide - lyophilised
    Size: 50ug
    Price:
    $150.00
  3. Rat Heart
    Rad21 Antibody - N-terminal region (ARP56709_P050)
    Catalog #: ARP56709_P050
    Protein Name: Protein Rad21 Ensembl ENSRNOP00000006209
    Alias: MGC116373, Rad21
    Tested Species: Rat
    Predicted Species: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat
    Application: WB
    Format: Liquid. Purified antibody supplied in 1x PBS buffer with 0.09% (w/v) sodium azide and 2% sucrose.
    Size: 100 ul
    Price:
    Special Price $229.00 Regular Price $289.00
  4. SMC3 Antibody (OASA08795)
    SMC3 Antibody (OASA08795)
    Catalog #: OASA08795
    Protein Name: Structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 3
    Alias: BAM, BMH, HCAP, CDLS3, CSPG6, SMC3L1, SMC3
    Predicted Species: Cow, Human, Mouse
    Application: IP, WB
    Format: Purified IgG - liquid
    Size: 50ug
    Price:
    $395.00
  5. SMAD3 Antibody (OASA08793)
    SMAD3 Antibody (OASA08793)
    Catalog #: OASA08793
    Protein Name: Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3
    Alias: MADH3, JV15-2, HSPC193, HsT17436, MGC60396, DKFZp586N0721, DKFZp686J10186, SMAD3
    Predicted Species: Human
    Application: IHC-FFPE, WB
    Format: Purified IgG - liquid
    Size: 50 ug
    Price:
    $709.00
  6. Ywhaz Antibody (OASA08615)
    Ywhaz Antibody (OASA08615)
    Catalog #: OASA08615
    Protein Name: 14-3-3 protein zeta/delta
    Alias: 14-3-3z, Ywhaz
    Predicted Species: Rat
    Application: WB
    Format: Purified IgG - liquid
    Size: 0.1ml
    Price:
    $750.00
  7. Plk1 Antibody (OASA08594)
    Plk1 Antibody (OASA08594)
    Catalog #: OASA08594
    Protein Name: Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK1
    Alias: Plk, Plk1
    Predicted Species: Rat
    Application: WB
    Format: Purified IgG - liquid
    Size: 0.1ml
    Price:
    $470.00
  8. Mdm2 Antibody (OASA08459)
    Mdm2 Antibody (OASA08459)
    Catalog #: OASA08459
    Protein Name: E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2
    Alias: Mdm-2, AA415488, 1700007J15Rik, Mdm2
    Predicted Species: Mouse
    Application: WB
    Format: Purified IgG - liquid
    Size: 50 ug
    Price:
    $359.00
  9. MAD2L1 Antibody (OASA08336)
    MAD2L1 Antibody (OASA08336)
    Catalog #: OASA08336
    Protein Name: Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2A
    Alias: MAD2, HSMAD2, MAD2L1
    Predicted Species: Human
    Application: IF, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Format: Purified IgG - liquid
    Size: 50ug
    Price:
    $675.00
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