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Cell Cycle

The cell cycle pathway is a unidirectional process that governs cell division. This process, which cannot be reversed once started, is critical for cell survival. The cell cycle typically involves four phases: S phase, in which DNA is replicated, M phase, in which chromosomes are separated and two distinct cells are formed, and G1 and G2 phases during which the cell is preparing for cell division. The majority of the cell cycle pathway is regulated by two classes of proteins: cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins. Cyclins and CDKs form complexes that enable CDKs to phosphorylate and activate specific cell cycle intermediates. In the initial stages of the cell-cycle signal, cyclin D will bind to CDK4 and this complex will phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene[1]. During a quiescent state, Rb is bound to DNA and blocks the transcription of specific genes. After phosphorylation, Rb becomes unbound and genes necessary for the cell cycle are now accessible.

The cell cycle pathway is a highly-regulated process that incorporates three major checkpoints. The first checkpoint is the G1 checkpoint, which determines whether or not a cell will enter into the cell division process. The second checkpoint, G2, will determine if the cell will enter into mitosis. Both the G1 and G2 checkpoints can be affected by the presence or absence of various growth factors, DNA damage, or replicative senescence. The final checkpoint, metaphase, ensures proper chromosome alignment prior to cell division. The cell cycle pathway is intrinsically linked to cell survival and cell death. For instance, failure of a cell to meet the requirements of the individual cell cycle checkpoints will result in the cell undergoing apoptosis.

In cancer, the cell cycle checkpoints are often dysfunctional. Checkpoint proteins, such as Rb or p53, are often mutated or inactivated and this can result in cell division despite incomplete DNA synthesis and segregation errors. Inappropriate continuation of the cell cycle can lead to genomic instability, which is a common feature of malignant cells.

1. Nigg. 1995. Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Bioessays. 17(6):471-80.

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Cell Cycle pathway image by Aviva Systems Biology

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    CCND1 Antibody (OASA00562)

    CCND1 Antibody (OASA00562)

    Protein Name:G1/S-specific cyclin-D1
    Catalog #:OASA00562
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, ELISA, FC, IP, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 0.1 mg
    Price (USD): $565.00
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    ANAPC2 cDNA (ANA11043)

    ANAPC2 cDNA (ANA11043)

    Protein Name:Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 2
    Catalog #:ANA11043
    Type: DNA
    Reacts with:
    Application:
    Product Size: 1ug
    Price (USD): $189.00
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    MCM5 Antibody (OASA03108) in Human tonsil using Immunohistochemistry

    MCM5 Antibody (OASA03108)

    Protein Name:DNA replication licensing factor MCM5
    Catalog #:OASA03108
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 0.1 mg
    Price (USD): $455.00
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    Gsk3b Antibody (OASA07320)

    Gsk3b Antibody (OASA07320)

    Protein Name:Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta
    Catalog #:OASA07320
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1 ml
    Price (USD): $770.00
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    Plk1 Antibody (OASA08594)

    Plk1 Antibody (OASA08594)

    Protein Name:Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK1
    Catalog #:OASA08594
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $470.00
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    PCNA Antibody (OASA03620) in HeLa Nucelar Extract using Western Blot

    PCNA Antibody (OASA03620)

    Protein Name:Proliferating cell nuclear antigen
    Catalog #:OASA03620
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, FC, IP, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 0.1 mg
    Price (USD): $655.00
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    CDC25A Antibody (OASA02601)

    CDC25A Antibody (OASA02601)

    Protein Name:M-phase inducer phosphatase 1
    Catalog #:OASA02601
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1 mg
    Price (USD): $710.00
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    CDKN2B Antibody (OASA03182)

    CDKN2B Antibody (OASA03182)

    Protein Name:Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B
    Catalog #:OASA03182
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1 mg
    Price (USD): $649.00
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    TFDP1 antibody - middle region (P100879_P050) in Human COLO205 using Western Blot

    TFDP1 Antibody - middle region (P100879_P050)

    Protein Name:Transcription factor Dp-1
    Catalog #:P100879_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Human, Mouse, Zebrafish
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
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    RBX1 antibody - middle region (AVARP03042_T100) in Human HepG2 using Western Blot

    RBX1 Antibody - middle region (AVARP03042_T100)

    Protein Name:
    Catalog #:AVARP03042_T100
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Human, Mouse, Rat, Zebrafish
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $229.00
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    ATM Antibody (OASA07004)

    ATM Antibody (OASA07004)

    Protein Name:Serine-protein kinase ATM
    Catalog #:OASA07004
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1 ml
    Price (USD): $609.00
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    HDAC1 Antibody (OASA07341)

    HDAC1 Antibody (OASA07341)

    Protein Name:Histone deacetylase 1
    Catalog #:OASA07341
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: ELISA, IF, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 50ug
    Price (USD): $770.00
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    SMAD3 Antibody (OASA08793)

    SMAD3 Antibody (OASA08793)

    Protein Name:Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3
    Catalog #:OASA08793
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: ELISA, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 50 ug
    Price (USD): $770.00
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    MCM2 Antibody (OASA03107) in Human tonsil using Immunohistochemistry

    MCM2 Antibody (OASA03107)

    Protein Name:DNA replication licensing factor MCM2
    Catalog #:OASA03107
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 0.1 mg
    Price (USD): $455.00
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    Mdm2 Antibody (OASA08459)

    Mdm2 Antibody (OASA08459)

    Protein Name:E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2
    Catalog #:OASA08459
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Mouse
    Application: ELISA, WB
    Product Size: 50 ug
    Price (USD): $410.00
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    CDC26 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP59256_P050) in Human Placenta using Western Blot

    CDC26 Antibody - C-terminal region (ARP59256_P050)

    Protein Name:Anaphase-promoting complex subunit CDC26
    Catalog #:ARP59256_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
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    CDK6 Antibody (OASA02602)

    CDK6 Antibody (OASA02602)

    Protein Name:Cyclin-dependent kinase 6
    Catalog #:OASA02602
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1 mg
    Price (USD): $629.00
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    CDKN2D Antibody (OASA03184)

    CDKN2D Antibody (OASA03184)

    Protein Name:Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor D
    Catalog #:OASA03184
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1 mg
    Price (USD): $649.00

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