Cell Cycle

The cell cycle pathway is a unidirectional process that governs cell division. This process, which cannot be reversed once started, is critical for cell survival. The cell cycle typically involves four phases: S phase, in which DNA is replicated, M phase, in which chromosomes are separated and two distinct cells are formed, and G1 and G2 phases during which the cell is preparing for cell division. The majority of the cell cycle pathway is regulated by two classes of proteins: cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins. Cyclins and CDKs form complexes that enable CDKs to phosphorylate and activate specific cell cycle intermediates. In the initial stages of the cell-cycle signal, cyclin D will bind to CDK4 and this complex will phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene[1]. During a quiescent state, Rb is bound to DNA and blocks the transcription of specific genes. After phosphorylation, Rb becomes unbound and genes necessary for the cell cycle are now accessible.

The cell cycle pathway is a highly-regulated process that incorporates three major checkpoints. The first checkpoint is the G1 checkpoint, which determines whether or not a cell will enter into the cell division process. The second checkpoint, G2, will determine if the cell will enter into mitosis. Both the G1 and G2 checkpoints can be affected by the presence or absence of various growth factors, DNA damage, or replicative senescence. The final checkpoint, metaphase, ensures proper chromosome alignment prior to cell division. The cell cycle pathway is intrinsically linked to cell survival and cell death. For instance, failure of a cell to meet the requirements of the individual cell cycle checkpoints will result in the cell undergoing apoptosis.

In cancer, the cell cycle checkpoints are often dysfunctional. Checkpoint proteins, such as Rb or p53, are often mutated or inactivated and this can result in cell division despite incomplete DNA synthesis and segregation errors. Inappropriate continuation of the cell cycle can lead to genomic instability, which is a common feature of malignant cells.

1. Nigg. 1995. Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Bioessays. 17(6):471-80.

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  1. ANAPC2 cDNA (ANA11043)
    ANAPC2 cDNA (ANA11043)
    Catalog #: ANA11043
    Protein Name: Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 2
    Alias: APC2, RP11-350O14.5
    Size: 1ug
    Price:
    $189.00
  2. Rat Heart
    Rad21 Antibody - N-terminal region (ARP56709_P050)
    Catalog #: ARP56709_P050
    Protein Name: Protein Rad21 Ensembl ENSRNOP00000006209
    Alias: MGC116373, Rad21
    Tested Species: Rat
    Predicted Species: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat
    Application: WB
    Format: Liquid. Purified antibody supplied in 1x PBS buffer with 0.09% (w/v) sodium azide and 2% sucrose.
    Size: 100 ul
    Price:
    Special Price $229.00 Regular Price $289.00
  3. SMAD3 Antibody (OASA08793)
    SMAD3 Antibody (OASA08793)
    Catalog #: OASA08793
    Protein Name: Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3
    Alias: MADH3, JV15-2, HSPC193, HsT17436, MGC60396, DKFZp586N0721, DKFZp686J10186, SMAD3
    Predicted Species: Human
    Application: IHC-FFPE, WB
    Format: Purified IgG - liquid
    Size: 50 ug
    Price:
    $709.00
  4. Mdm2 Antibody (OASA08459)
    Mdm2 Antibody (OASA08459)
    Catalog #: OASA08459
    Protein Name: E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2
    Alias: Mdm-2, AA415488, 1700007J15Rik, Mdm2
    Predicted Species: Mouse
    Application: WB
    Format: Purified IgG - liquid
    Size: 50 ug
    Price:
    $359.00
  5. PRKDC Antibody (OASA07215)
    PRKDC Antibody (OASA07215)
    Catalog #: OASA07215
    Protein Name: DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit
    Alias: HYRC, p350, DNAPK, DNPK1, HYRC1, XRCC7, DNA-PKcs, PRKDC
    Predicted Species: Human
    Application: GS, IP, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Format: Serum - liquid
    Size: 0.1 ml
    Price:
    $709.00
  6. CCNE1 Antibody (OASA07193)
    CCNE1 Antibody (OASA07193)
    Catalog #: OASA07193
    Protein Name: G1/S-specific cyclin-E1
    Alias: CCNE, CCNE1
    Predicted Species: Human
    Application: IP, WB
    Format: Serum - liquid
    Size: 50 ul
    Price:
    $459.00
  7. ATM Antibody (OASA07004)
    ATM Antibody (OASA07004)
    Catalog #: OASA07004
    Protein Name: Serine-protein kinase ATM
    Alias: AT1, ATA, ATC, ATD, ATE, ATDC, TEL1, TELO1, MGC74674, DKFZp781A0353, ATM
    Predicted Species: Human
    Application: WB
    Format: Serum - liquid
    Size: 0.1 ml
    Price:
    $709.00
  8. HeLa Nucelar Extract
    PCNA Antibody (OASA03620)
    Catalog #: OASA03620
    Protein Name: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen
    Alias: MGC8367, PCNA
    Clone: PC10
    Predicted Species: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, FC, IP, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Format: Purified IgG - liquid
    Size: 0.1 mg
    Price:
    $359.00
  9. CDKN2D Antibody (OASA03184)
    CDKN2D Antibody (OASA03184)
    Catalog #: OASA03184
    Protein Name: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor D
    Alias: p19, INK4D, p19-INK4D, CDKN2D
    Clone: DCS100.1
    Predicted Species: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, IP, WB
    Format: Purified IgG - liquid
    Size: 0.1 mg
    Price:
    $759.00
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