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Cell Cycle Pathway

The cell cycle pathway is a unidirectional process that governs cell division. This process, which cannot be reversed once started, is critical for cell survival. The cell cycle typically involves four phases: S phase, in which DNA is replicated, M phase, in which chromosomes are separated and two distinct cells are formed, and G1 and G2 phases during which the cell is preparing for cell division. The majority of the cell cycle pathway is regulated by two classes of proteins: cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins. Cyclins and CDKs form complexes that enable CDKs to phosphorylate and activate specific cell cycle intermediates. In the initial stages of the cell-cycle signal, cyclin D will bind to CDK4 and this complex will phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene[1]. During a quiescent state, Rb is bound to DNA and blocks the transcription of specific genes. After phosphorylation, Rb becomes unbound and genes necessary for the cell cycle are now accessible.

The cell cycle pathway is a highly-regulated process that incorporates three major checkpoints. The first checkpoint is the G1 checkpoint, which determines whether or not a cell will enter into the cell division process. The second checkpoint, G2, will determine if the cell will enter into mitosis. Both the G1 and G2 checkpoints can be affected by the presence or absence of various growth factors, DNA damage, or replicative senescence. The final checkpoint, metaphase, ensures proper chromosome alignment prior to cell division. The cell cycle pathway is intrinsically linked to cell survival and cell death. For instance, failure of a cell to meet the requirements of the individual cell cycle checkpoints will result in the cell undergoing apoptosis.

In cancer, the cell cycle checkpoints are often dysfunctional. Checkpoint proteins, such as Rb or p53, are often mutated or inactivated and this can result in cell division despite incomplete DNA synthesis and segregation errors. Inappropriate continuation of the cell cycle can lead to genomic instability, which is a common feature of malignant cells.

1. Nigg. 1995. Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Bioessays. 17(6):471-80.

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Cell Cycle pathway image by Aviva Systems Biology

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Showing 61 - 81 of 81
  • TRIAL 
    CDC27 antibody - middle region (ARP43603_P050) in Human NCI-H226 using Western Blot

    CDC27 antibody - middle region (ARP43603_P050)

    Protein Name:Cell division cycle protein 27 homolog
    Catalog #:ARP43603_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Rabbit, Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  • TRIAL 
    TFDP1 antibody - middle region (P100879_P050) in Human COLO205 using Western Blot

    TFDP1 antibody - middle region (P100879_P050)

    Protein Name:Transcription factor Dp-1
    Catalog #:P100879_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Human, Mouse, Zebrafish
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  • TRIAL 
    PTTG2 antibody - middle region (ARP50542_P050) in Human HepG2 using Western Blot

    PTTG2 antibody - middle region (ARP50542_P050)

    Protein Name:Securin-2
    Catalog #:ARP50542_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Horse, Human, Mouse, Pig, Rabbit
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  •  
    CDKN1C antibody - middle region (AVARP03022_P050) in Fetal Spleen using Western Blot

    CDKN1C antibody - middle region (AVARP03022_P050)

    Protein Name:Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C
    Catalog #:AVARP03022_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  • TRIAL 
    CDC23 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP43040_P050) in Human Jurkat using Western Blot

    CDC23 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP43040_P050)

    Protein Name:Cell division cycle protein 23 homolog
    Catalog #:ARP43040_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  • TRIAL 
    MCM7 antibody - middle region (ARP36667_T100) in Human HepG2 using Western Blot

    MCM7 antibody - middle region (ARP36667_T100)

    Protein Name:DNA replication licensing factor MCM7
    Catalog #:ARP36667_T100
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat, Zebrafish
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $229.00
  •  
    TGFB2 antibody - middle region (ARP45446_P050) in Human NCI-H226 using Western Blot

    TGFB2 antibody - middle region (ARP45446_P050)

    Protein Name:Transforming growth factor beta-2
    Catalog #:ARP45446_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Pig, Rabbit, Rat, Sheep, Zebrafish
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  • TRIAL 
    RBL1 antibody - N-terminal region (P100682_P050) in Human COLO205 using Western Blot

    RBL1 antibody - N-terminal region (P100682_P050)

    Protein Name:Retinoblastoma-like protein 1
    Catalog #:P100682_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Pig, Rabbit, Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  •  
    PCNA Antibody (OASA03620) in HeLa Nucelar Extract using Western Blot
    PCNA Antibody (OASA03620) in KM-H2 using Flow Cytometry

    PCNA Antibody (OASA03620)

    Protein Name:Proliferating cell nuclear antigen
    Catalog #:OASA03620
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, FC, IP, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $635.00
  • TRIAL 
    SMAD4 antibody - N-terminal region (ARP38605_P050) in Human 293T using Western Blot
    SMAD4 antibody (ARP38605_P050) in Human Lung using Immunohistochemistry

    SMAD4 antibody - N-terminal region (ARP38605_P050)

    Protein Name:Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4
    Catalog #:ARP38605_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Goat, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat, Sheep, Zebrafish
    Application: IHC, WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  • TRIAL 
    YWHAE antibody - middle region (AVARP02058_P050) in Human Spleen using Western Blot
    YWHAE antibody - middle region (AVARP02058_P050) in Human NT-2, mouse brain extracts using Western Blot

    YWHAE antibody - middle region (AVARP02058_P050)

    Protein Name:14-3-3 protein epsilon
    Catalog #:AVARP02058_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Dog, Guinea Pig, Mouse, Zebrafish
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  • TRIAL 
    ANAPC7 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP41605_P050) in Human Jurkat using Western Blot
    ANAPC7 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP41605_P050) in Human Intestine using Immunohistochemistry

    ANAPC7 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP41605_P050)

    Protein Name:Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7
    Catalog #:ARP41605_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat
    Application: IHC, WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  •  
    TFDP2 antibody - N-terminal region (ARP33438_T100) in Human Jurkat using Western Blot
    TFDP2 antibody - N-terminal region (ARP33438_T100) in Human kidney using Immunohistochemistry

    TFDP2 antibody - N-terminal region (ARP33438_T100)

    Protein Name:Transcription factor Dp-2
    Catalog #:ARP33438_T100
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat
    Application: IHC, WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $229.00
  • TRIAL 
    HDAC2 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP32618_P050) in Human Jurkat using Western Blot
    HDAC2 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP32618_P050) in Human Spermatophore using Immunohistochemistry

    HDAC2 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP32618_P050)

    Protein Name:Histone deacetylase 2
    Catalog #:ARP32618_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Pig, Rabbit, Rat, Yeast
    Application: IHC, WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  • TRIAL 
    CDC26 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP59256_P050) in Human Placenta using Western Blot
    CDC26 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP59256_P050) in Human Jukart, Hela using Western Blot

    CDC26 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP59256_P050)

    Protein Name:Anaphase-promoting complex subunit CDC26
    Catalog #:ARP59256_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  • TRIAL 
    CDC25B antibody - N-terminal region (AVARP03041_P050) in Human Daudi using Western Blot
    CDC25B antibody - N-terminal region (AVARP03041_P050) in Human Liver using Immunohistochemistry

    CDC25B antibody - N-terminal region (AVARP03041_P050)

    Protein Name:M-phase inducer phosphatase 2
    Catalog #:AVARP03041_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Pig, Rabbit
    Application: IHC, WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  •  
    GADD45B antibody - middle region (ARP48346_P050) in Human HepG2 using Western Blot
    GA45B Antibody (ARP48346_P050) in Human Fetal Lung using Western Blot
    GADD45B antibody - middle region (ARP48346_P050) in Human Prostate Cancer using Immunohistochemistry
    GADD45B antibody - middle region (ARP48346_P050) in Human Prostate Cancer using Immunohistochemistry

    GADD45B antibody - middle region (ARP48346_P050)

    Protein Name:Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD45 beta
    Catalog #:ARP48346_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Pig, Rat
    Application: IHC, WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  • TRIAL 
    E2F4 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP31175_P050) in Human HepG2 using Western Blot
    E2F4 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP31175_P050) in Human Intestine using Immunohistochemistry
    E2F4 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP31175_P050) in Human Stomach using Immunohistochemistry

    E2F4 antibody - C-terminal region (ARP31175_P050)

    Protein Name:Transcription factor E2F4
    Catalog #:ARP31175_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat, Zebrafish
    Application: IHC, WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00

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Showing 61 - 81 of 81