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Cell Cycle Pathway

The cell cycle pathway is a unidirectional process that governs cell division. This process, which cannot be reversed once started, is critical for cell survival. The cell cycle typically involves four phases: S phase, in which DNA is replicated, M phase, in which chromosomes are separated and two distinct cells are formed, and G1 and G2 phases during which the cell is preparing for cell division. The majority of the cell cycle pathway is regulated by two classes of proteins: cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins. Cyclins and CDKs form complexes that enable CDKs to phosphorylate and activate specific cell cycle intermediates. In the initial stages of the cell-cycle signal, cyclin D will bind to CDK4 and this complex will phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene[1]. During a quiescent state, Rb is bound to DNA and blocks the transcription of specific genes. After phosphorylation, Rb becomes unbound and genes necessary for the cell cycle are now accessible.

The cell cycle pathway is a highly-regulated process that incorporates three major checkpoints. The first checkpoint is the G1 checkpoint, which determines whether or not a cell will enter into the cell division process. The second checkpoint, G2, will determine if the cell will enter into mitosis. Both the G1 and G2 checkpoints can be affected by the presence or absence of various growth factors, DNA damage, or replicative senescence. The final checkpoint, metaphase, ensures proper chromosome alignment prior to cell division. The cell cycle pathway is intrinsically linked to cell survival and cell death. For instance, failure of a cell to meet the requirements of the individual cell cycle checkpoints will result in the cell undergoing apoptosis.

In cancer, the cell cycle checkpoints are often dysfunctional. Checkpoint proteins, such as Rb or p53, are often mutated or inactivated and this can result in cell division despite incomplete DNA synthesis and segregation errors. Inappropriate continuation of the cell cycle can lead to genomic instability, which is a common feature of malignant cells.

1. Nigg. 1995. Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Bioessays. 17(6):471-80.

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Cell Cycle pathway image by Aviva Systems Biology

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Showing 1 - 30 of 61
  Type Catalog # Product Product Images Price (USD)
  pAb P100991_P050 CCNH antibody - middle region (P100991_P050)
Reacts with
Bovine, Guinea pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Pig, Rabbit, Rat
Application
WB
$289.00
  pAb P100920_P050 E2F5 antibody - N-terminal region (P100920_P050)
Reacts with
Dog, Guinea pig, Human, Mouse, Pig, Rabbit, Rat, Zebrafish
Application
WB
$289.00
  pAb P100879_P050 TFDP1 antibody - middle region (P100879_P050)
Reacts with
Bovine, Human, Mouse, Zebrafish
Application
WB
$289.00
  pAb P100682_P050 RBL1 antibody - N-terminal region (P100682_P050)
Reacts with
Bovine, Dog, Guinea pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Pig, Rabbit, Rat
Application
WB
$289.00
  pAb OASA08795 SMC3 Antibody (OASA08795)
Reacts with
Human, Xenopus
Application
IP, WB
$395.00
  pAb OASA08793 SMAD3 Antibody (OASA08793)
Reacts with
Human
Application
ELISA, IHC-FFPE, WB
$750.00
  pAb OASA08594 Plk1 Antibody (OASA08594)
Reacts with
Rat
Application
WB
$455.00
  pAb OASA08459 Mdm2 Antibody (OASA08459)
Reacts with
Mouse
Application
ELISA, WB
$395.00
  pAb OASA08168 SMC1A Antibody (OASA08168)
Reacts with
Human
Application
IP, WB
$865.00
  pAb OASA08061 EP300 Antibody (OASA08061)
Reacts with
Human
Application
IP, WB
$640.00
  pAb OASA08060 CDKN1B Antibody (OASA08060)
Reacts with
Human
Application
ELISA, IP, WB
$390.00
  pAb OASA07961 MCM6 Antibody (OASA07961)
Reacts with
Human
Application
WB
$660.00
  pAb OASA07643 CREBBP Antibody (OASA07643)
Reacts with
Human
Application
IP, WB
$640.00
  pAb OASA07341 HDAC1 Antibody (OASA07341)
Reacts with
Human
Application
ELISA, IF, IHC-FFPE, WB
$750.00
  pAb OASA07320 Gsk3b Antibody (OASA07320)
Reacts with
Rat
Application
WB
$750.00
  pAb OASA07215 PRKDC Antibody (OASA07215)
Reacts with
Human
Application
GS, IP, IHC-FFPE, WB
$440.00
  pAb OASA07193 CCNE1 Antibody (OASA07193)
Reacts with
Human
Application
ELISA, IP, WB
$380.00
  pAb OASA07136 CDK2 antibody - C-terminal region (OASA07136)
Reacts with
Human
Application
ELISA, IP, IHC-FFPE, WB
$455.00
  pAb OASA07004 ATM Antibody (OASA07004)
Reacts with
Human
Application
WB
$455.00
  pAb OASA06936 YWHAQ Antibody (OASA06936)
Reacts with
Sheep
Application
ELISA, IHC-FFPE, WB
$500.00
  pAb OASA06935 SFN Antibody (OASA06935)
Reacts with
Sheep
Application
WB
$485.00
  pAb OASA06933 YWHAH Antibody (OASA06933)
Reacts with
Sheep
Application
WB
$485.00
  pAb OASA06340 MCM4 Antibody (OASA06340)
Reacts with
Human
Application
WB
$660.00
  pAb OASA06107 CHEK1 Antibody (OASA06107)
Reacts with
Human
Application
IP, WB
$385.00
  mAb OASA03620 PCNA Antibody (OASA03620)
Reacts with
Human
Application
IHC-AFF, FC, IP, IHC-FFPE, WB
$635.00
  mAb OASA03273 RB1 Antibody (OASA03273)
Reacts with
Human
Application
IHC-AFF, IHC-FFPE, WB
$1,205.00
  mAb OASA03184 CDKN2D Antibody (OASA03184)
Reacts with
Human
Application
IHC-AFF, IP, WB
$570.00
  mAb OASA03182 CDKN2B Antibody (OASA03182)
Reacts with
Human
Application
IHC-AFF, IP, WB
$570.00
  mAb OASA03108 MCM5 Antibody (OASA03108)
Reacts with
Human
Application
IHC-FFPE, WB
$440.00
  mAb OASA03107 MCM2 Antibody (OASA03107)
Reacts with
Human
Application
IHC-AFF, IHC-FFPE, WB
$440.00

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