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Cell Cycle Pathway

The cell cycle pathway is a unidirectional process that governs cell division. This process, which cannot be reversed once started, is critical for cell survival. The cell cycle typically involves four phases: S phase, in which DNA is replicated, M phase, in which chromosomes are separated and two distinct cells are formed, and G1 and G2 phases during which the cell is preparing for cell division. The majority of the cell cycle pathway is regulated by two classes of proteins: cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins. Cyclins and CDKs form complexes that enable CDKs to phosphorylate and activate specific cell cycle intermediates. In the initial stages of the cell-cycle signal, cyclin D will bind to CDK4 and this complex will phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene[1]. During a quiescent state, Rb is bound to DNA and blocks the transcription of specific genes. After phosphorylation, Rb becomes unbound and genes necessary for the cell cycle are now accessible.

The cell cycle pathway is a highly-regulated process that incorporates three major checkpoints. The first checkpoint is the G1 checkpoint, which determines whether or not a cell will enter into the cell division process. The second checkpoint, G2, will determine if the cell will enter into mitosis. Both the G1 and G2 checkpoints can be affected by the presence or absence of various growth factors, DNA damage, or replicative senescence. The final checkpoint, metaphase, ensures proper chromosome alignment prior to cell division. The cell cycle pathway is intrinsically linked to cell survival and cell death. For instance, failure of a cell to meet the requirements of the individual cell cycle checkpoints will result in the cell undergoing apoptosis.

In cancer, the cell cycle checkpoints are often dysfunctional. Checkpoint proteins, such as Rb or p53, are often mutated or inactivated and this can result in cell division despite incomplete DNA synthesis and segregation errors. Inappropriate continuation of the cell cycle can lead to genomic instability, which is a common feature of malignant cells.

1. Nigg. 1995. Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Bioessays. 17(6):471-80.

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Cell Cycle pathway image by Aviva Systems Biology

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  • TRIAL 
    CCNH antibody - middle region (P100991_P050) in Human MCF-7 using Western Blot

    CCNH antibody - middle region (P100991_P050)

    Protein Name:Cyclin-H
    Catalog #:P100991_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  •  
    E2F5 antibody - N-terminal region (P100920_P050) in Human Jurkat using Western Blot

    E2F5 antibody - N-terminal region (P100920_P050)

    Protein Name:Transcription factor E2F5
    Catalog #:P100920_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Dog, Guinea Pig, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat, Zebrafish
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  • TRIAL 
    TFDP1 antibody - middle region (P100879_P050) in Human COLO205 using Western Blot

    TFDP1 antibody - middle region (P100879_P050)

    Protein Name:Transcription factor Dp-1
    Catalog #:P100879_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Human, Mouse, Zebrafish
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
  •  
    SMAD3 Antibody (OASA08793)

    SMAD3 Antibody (OASA08793)

    Protein Name:Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3
    Catalog #:OASA08793
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: ELISA, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 50ug
    Price (USD): $750.00
  •  
    Ywhaz Antibody (OASA08615)

    Ywhaz Antibody (OASA08615)

    Protein Name:14-3-3 protein zeta/delta
    Catalog #:OASA08615
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $750.00
  •  
    Plk1 Antibody (OASA08594)

    Plk1 Antibody (OASA08594)

    Protein Name:Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK1
    Catalog #:OASA08594
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $455.00
  •  
    Mdm2 Antibody (OASA08459)

    Mdm2 Antibody (OASA08459)

    Protein Name:E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2
    Catalog #:OASA08459
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Mouse
    Application: ELISA, WB
    Product Size: 50ug
    Price (USD): $395.00
  •  
    MAD2L1 Antibody (OASA08336)

    MAD2L1 Antibody (OASA08336)

    Protein Name:Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2A
    Catalog #:OASA08336
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: ELISA, IF, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 50ug
    Price (USD): $675.00
  •  
    SMC1A Antibody (OASA08168)

    SMC1A Antibody (OASA08168)

    Protein Name:Structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 1A
    Catalog #:OASA08168
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $865.00
  •  
    RBL2 Antibody (OASA08144)

    RBL2 Antibody (OASA08144)

    Protein Name:Retinoblastoma-like protein 2
    Catalog #:OASA08144
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, ELISA, IP, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $690.00
  •  
    EP300 Antibody (OASA08061)

    EP300 Antibody (OASA08061)

    Protein Name:Histone acetyltransferase p300
    Catalog #:OASA08061
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $640.00
  •  
    CDKN1B Antibody (OASA08060)

    CDKN1B Antibody (OASA08060)

    Protein Name:Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B
    Catalog #:OASA08060
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: ELISA, IP, WB
    Product Size: 50ul
    Price (USD): $390.00
  •  
    MCM6 Antibody (OASA07961)

    MCM6 Antibody (OASA07961)

    Protein Name:DNA replication licensing factor MCM6
    Catalog #:OASA07961
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $660.00
  •  
    CREBBP Antibody (OASA07643)

    CREBBP Antibody (OASA07643)

    Protein Name:CREB-binding protein
    Catalog #:OASA07643
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $640.00
  •  
    CDC16 Antibody (OASA07610)

    CDC16 Antibody (OASA07610)

    Protein Name:Cell division cycle protein 16 homolog
    Catalog #:OASA07610
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: ELISA, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 50ug
    Price (USD): $750.00
  •  
    HDAC1 Antibody (OASA07341)

    HDAC1 Antibody (OASA07341)

    Protein Name:Histone deacetylase 1
    Catalog #:OASA07341
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: ELISA, IF, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 50ug
    Price (USD): $750.00
  •  
    Gsk3b Antibody (OASA07320)

    Gsk3b Antibody (OASA07320)

    Protein Name:Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta
    Catalog #:OASA07320
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $750.00
  •  
    PRKDC Antibody (OASA07215)

    PRKDC Antibody (OASA07215)

    Protein Name:DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit
    Catalog #:OASA07215
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: GS, IP, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $440.00
  •  
    ATM Antibody (OASA07004)

    ATM Antibody (OASA07004)

    Protein Name:Serine-protein kinase ATM
    Catalog #:OASA07004
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $455.00
  •  
    YWHAQ Antibody (OASA06936)

    YWHAQ Antibody (OASA06936)

    Protein Name:
    Catalog #:OASA06936
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Sheep
    Application: ELISA, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $500.00
  •  
    SFN Antibody (OASA06935)

    SFN Antibody (OASA06935)

    Protein Name:14-3-3 protein sigma
    Catalog #:OASA06935
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Sheep
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $485.00

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