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Cell Cycle

The cell cycle pathway is a unidirectional process that governs cell division. This process, which cannot be reversed once started, is critical for cell survival. The cell cycle typically involves four phases: S phase, in which DNA is replicated, M phase, in which chromosomes are separated and two distinct cells are formed, and G1 and G2 phases during which the cell is preparing for cell division. The majority of the cell cycle pathway is regulated by two classes of proteins: cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins. Cyclins and CDKs form complexes that enable CDKs to phosphorylate and activate specific cell cycle intermediates. In the initial stages of the cell-cycle signal, cyclin D will bind to CDK4 and this complex will phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene[1]. During a quiescent state, Rb is bound to DNA and blocks the transcription of specific genes. After phosphorylation, Rb becomes unbound and genes necessary for the cell cycle are now accessible.

The cell cycle pathway is a highly-regulated process that incorporates three major checkpoints. The first checkpoint is the G1 checkpoint, which determines whether or not a cell will enter into the cell division process. The second checkpoint, G2, will determine if the cell will enter into mitosis. Both the G1 and G2 checkpoints can be affected by the presence or absence of various growth factors, DNA damage, or replicative senescence. The final checkpoint, metaphase, ensures proper chromosome alignment prior to cell division. The cell cycle pathway is intrinsically linked to cell survival and cell death. For instance, failure of a cell to meet the requirements of the individual cell cycle checkpoints will result in the cell undergoing apoptosis.

In cancer, the cell cycle checkpoints are often dysfunctional. Checkpoint proteins, such as Rb or p53, are often mutated or inactivated and this can result in cell division despite incomplete DNA synthesis and segregation errors. Inappropriate continuation of the cell cycle can lead to genomic instability, which is a common feature of malignant cells.

1. Nigg. 1995. Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Bioessays. 17(6):471-80.

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Cell Cycle pathway image by Aviva Systems Biology

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  •  
    SMAD3 Antibody (OASA08793)

    SMAD3 Antibody (OASA08793)

    Protein Name:Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3
    Catalog #:OASA08793
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: ELISA, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 50ug
    Price (USD): $750.00
  •  
    RB1 Antibody (OASA03273)

    RB1 Antibody (OASA03273)

    Protein Name:Retinoblastoma-associated protein
    Catalog #:OASA03273
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 1ml
    Price (USD): $1,205.00
  •  
    MCM3 Antibody (OASA06339)

    MCM3 Antibody (OASA06339)

    Protein Name:DNA replication licensing factor MCM3
    Catalog #:OASA06339
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $690.00
  •  
    YWHAQ Antibody (OASA06936)

    YWHAQ Antibody (OASA06936)

    Protein Name:
    Catalog #:OASA06936
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Sheep
    Application: ELISA, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $500.00
  •  
    HDAC1 Antibody (OASA07341)

    HDAC1 Antibody (OASA07341)

    Protein Name:Histone deacetylase 1
    Catalog #:OASA07341
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: ELISA, IF, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 50ug
    Price (USD): $750.00
  •  
    CCND2 Antibody (OASA00564)

    CCND2 Antibody (OASA00564)

    Protein Name:G1/S-specific cyclin-D2
    Catalog #:OASA00564
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $735.00
  •  
    EP300 Antibody (OASA08061)

    EP300 Antibody (OASA08061)

    Protein Name:Histone acetyltransferase p300
    Catalog #:OASA08061
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $640.00
  •  
    CCND3 Antibody (OASA02653)

    CCND3 Antibody (OASA02653)

    Protein Name:G1/S-specific cyclin-D3
    Catalog #:OASA02653
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 1ml
    Price (USD): $1,130.00
  •  
    Plk1 Antibody (OASA08594)

    Plk1 Antibody (OASA08594)

    Protein Name:Serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK1
    Catalog #:OASA08594
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $455.00
  •  
    CDKN2D Antibody (OASA03184)

    CDKN2D Antibody (OASA03184)

    Protein Name:Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor D
    Catalog #:OASA03184
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $570.00
  •  
    CHEK1 Antibody (OASA06107)

    CHEK1 Antibody (OASA06107)

    Protein Name:Serine/threonine-protein kinase Chk1
    Catalog #:OASA06107
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IP, WB
    Product Size: 50ug
    Price (USD): $385.00
  •  
    RABBIT ANTI BUB3 Antibody

    RABBIT ANTI BUB3 Antibody

    Protein Name:Mitotic checkpoint protein BUB3
    Catalog #:OASA07099
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with:
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $270.00
  •  
    PRKDC Antibody (OASA07215)

    PRKDC Antibody (OASA07215)

    Protein Name:DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit
    Catalog #:OASA07215
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: GS, IP, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $440.00
  •  
    CDK4 Antibody (OASA00465)

    CDK4 Antibody (OASA00465)

    Protein Name:Cyclin-dependent kinase 4
    Catalog #:OASA00465
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with:
    Application: IHC-AFF, IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $640.00
  •  
    MCM6 Antibody (OASA07961)

    MCM6 Antibody (OASA07961)

    Protein Name:DNA replication licensing factor MCM6
    Catalog #:OASA07961
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $660.00
  •  
    CDK6 Antibody (OASA02602)

    CDK6 Antibody (OASA02602)

    Protein Name:Cyclin-dependent kinase 6
    Catalog #:OASA02602
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $555.00
  •  
    MAD2L1 Antibody (OASA08336)

    MAD2L1 Antibody (OASA08336)

    Protein Name:Mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2A
    Catalog #:OASA08336
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: ELISA, IF, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 50ug
    Price (USD): $675.00
  •  
    CDKN2B Antibody (OASA03182)

    CDKN2B Antibody (OASA03182)

    Protein Name:Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B
    Catalog #:OASA03182
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $570.00
  •  
    SMC3 Antibody (OASA08795)

    SMC3 Antibody (OASA08795)

    Protein Name:Structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 3
    Catalog #:OASA08795
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Human, Mouse
    Application: IP, WB
    Product Size: 50ug
    Price (USD): $395.00
  •  
    MCM4 Antibody (OASA06340)

    MCM4 Antibody (OASA06340)

    Protein Name:DNA replication licensing factor MCM4
    Catalog #:OASA06340
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $660.00
  •  
    ATM Antibody (OASA07004)

    ATM Antibody (OASA07004)

    Protein Name:Serine-protein kinase ATM
    Catalog #:OASA07004
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $455.00
  •  
    RABBIT ANTI CYCLIN B1 Antibody

    RABBIT ANTI CYCLIN B1 Antibody

    Protein Name:G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B1
    Catalog #:OASA07190
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with:
    Application: ELISA, IP, WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $440.00
  •  
    CDC16 Antibody (OASA07610)

    CDC16 Antibody (OASA07610)

    Protein Name:Cell division cycle protein 16 homolog
    Catalog #:OASA07610
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: ELISA, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 50ug
    Price (USD): $750.00
  •  
    CDK1 Antibody (OASA02600)

    CDK1 Antibody (OASA02600)

    Protein Name:Cyclin-dependent kinase 1
    Catalog #:OASA02600
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 0.2mg
    Price (USD): $365.00
  •  
    RBL2 Antibody (OASA08144)

    RBL2 Antibody (OASA08144)

    Protein Name:Retinoblastoma-like protein 2
    Catalog #:OASA08144
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, ELISA, IP, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $690.00
  •  
    Ywhaz Antibody (OASA08615)

    Ywhaz Antibody (OASA08615)

    Protein Name:14-3-3 protein zeta/delta
    Catalog #:OASA08615
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $750.00
  •  
    MOUSE ANTI HUMAN p21/WAF1 Antibody (10ug)

    MOUSE ANTI HUMAN p21/WAF1 Antibody (10ug)

    Protein Name:Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1
    Catalog #:OASA03185
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with:
    Application: IHC-AFF, FC, IHC-FFPE
    Product Size: 10ug
    Price (USD): $450.00

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