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Cell Cycle

The cell cycle pathway is a unidirectional process that governs cell division. This process, which cannot be reversed once started, is critical for cell survival. The cell cycle typically involves four phases: S phase, in which DNA is replicated, M phase, in which chromosomes are separated and two distinct cells are formed, and G1 and G2 phases during which the cell is preparing for cell division. The majority of the cell cycle pathway is regulated by two classes of proteins: cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins. Cyclins and CDKs form complexes that enable CDKs to phosphorylate and activate specific cell cycle intermediates. In the initial stages of the cell-cycle signal, cyclin D will bind to CDK4 and this complex will phosphorylate the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene[1]. During a quiescent state, Rb is bound to DNA and blocks the transcription of specific genes. After phosphorylation, Rb becomes unbound and genes necessary for the cell cycle are now accessible.

The cell cycle pathway is a highly-regulated process that incorporates three major checkpoints. The first checkpoint is the G1 checkpoint, which determines whether or not a cell will enter into the cell division process. The second checkpoint, G2, will determine if the cell will enter into mitosis. Both the G1 and G2 checkpoints can be affected by the presence or absence of various growth factors, DNA damage, or replicative senescence. The final checkpoint, metaphase, ensures proper chromosome alignment prior to cell division. The cell cycle pathway is intrinsically linked to cell survival and cell death. For instance, failure of a cell to meet the requirements of the individual cell cycle checkpoints will result in the cell undergoing apoptosis.

In cancer, the cell cycle checkpoints are often dysfunctional. Checkpoint proteins, such as Rb or p53, are often mutated or inactivated and this can result in cell division despite incomplete DNA synthesis and segregation errors. Inappropriate continuation of the cell cycle can lead to genomic instability, which is a common feature of malignant cells.

1. Nigg. 1995. Cyclin-dependent protein kinases: key regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle. Bioessays. 17(6):471-80.

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Cell Cycle pathway image by Aviva Systems Biology

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    TGFB2 antibody - middle region (ARP45446_P050) in Human NCI-H226 using Western Blot

    TGFB2 antibody - middle region (ARP45446_P050)

    Protein Name:Transforming growth factor beta-2
    Catalog #:ARP45446_P050
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Cow, Dog, Guinea Pig, Horse, Human, Mouse, Pig, Rabbit, Rat, Sheep, Zebrafish
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 100 ul
    Price (USD): $289.00
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    MCM4 Antibody (OASA06340)

    MCM4 Antibody (OASA06340)

    Protein Name:DNA replication licensing factor MCM4
    Catalog #:OASA06340
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1mg
    Price (USD): $660.00
  •  
    ATM Antibody (OASA07004)

    ATM Antibody (OASA07004)

    Protein Name:Serine-protein kinase ATM
    Catalog #:OASA07004
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $455.00
  •  
    RBL2 Antibody (OASA08144)

    RBL2 Antibody (OASA08144)

    Protein Name:Retinoblastoma-like protein 2
    Catalog #:OASA08144
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Human
    Application: IHC-AFF, ELISA, IP, IHC-FFPE, WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $690.00
  •  
    Ywhaz Antibody (OASA08615)

    Ywhaz Antibody (OASA08615)

    Protein Name:14-3-3 protein zeta/delta
    Catalog #:OASA08615
    Type: pAb
    Reacts with: Rat
    Application: WB
    Product Size: 0.1ml
    Price (USD): $750.00
  •  
    p21/WAF1 Antibody (OASA03185)

    p21/WAF1 Antibody (OASA03185)

    Protein Name:Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1
    Catalog #:OASA03185
    Type: mAb
    Reacts with:
    Application: IHC-AFF, FC, IHC-FFPE
    Product Size: 10ug
    Price (USD): $450.00

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