Apoptosis is the process of cell death, which may include shrinking of the cell, loss of cell membrane, fragmentation of the nucleus, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation. The process is controlled by many extracellular signals such as toxins, cytokines, growth factors, and hormones.
1. Elmore, Susan. (2007) “Apoptosis: A Review of Programmed Cell Death”. Toxicol Pathol. Vol. 35 no. 4 495-516.